THE ALAMO FILM TRAILER
"TITTER YE NOT"
A Mexican, and
A Texan were flying across country in a small plane when the pilot says to them,
"We're having mechanical problems and the only way we can make it to the next airport is if 3 of you open the door and jump out, at least one of you can survive"
The Englishman takes a deep breath and hollers "God Save The Queen" and jumps out.
The Frenchman gets really inspired and hollers "Viva La France" and he jumps out.
This really pumps up the Texan so he hollers
"Remember the Alamo"
grabs the Mexican and
throws him out of the plane.
A Texan and a Mexican
were driving along the highway when all of a sudden the Texan slams on the brakes.
There was a sheep with
her head stuck in the fence and the Texan said
"We Texans never pass up an opportunity like this!"
He gets out and has
his wicked way with the sheep.
He says to the Mexican, "Your turn"...
So the Mexican bends over and sticks his head in the fence.
TEXAS THE LONE STAR STATE
SAN ANTONIO TEXAS
Texas is the second most populous and second largest state
of the United States of America. Geographically located in the
south central part of the country, Texas shares an international
border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila,
Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and borders the
U.S. states of New Mexico to the west, Oklahoma to the north,
Arkansas to the north east, and Louisiana to the east. Texas
has an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km2) and a
growing population of over 26.9 million residents (July 2014).
Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest in
the United States, while San Antonio is the second largest in
the state and seventh largest in the United States. Dallas–Fort
Worth and Greater Houston are the eighth and tenth largest
United States metropolitan areas, respectively.
Other major cities include El Paso and Austin—the state
capital. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify
Texas as a former independent republic, and as a reminder of
the state's struggle for independence from Mexico. The "Lone
Star" can be found on the Texas state flag and on the Texas
state seal today. The origin of the state name, Texas, is from
the word, "Tejas", which means 'friends' in the Caddo
Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones
Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both
the American South and Southwest. Although Texas is
popularly associated with the South western deserts, less
than 10 percent of the land area is desert. Most of the
population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend .
The term "six flags over Texas", as can be seen in the Grand Prairie–based large national and international amusement park operator Six Flags, came from the several nations that had ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short lived colony in Texas. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state. The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846 . A slave state, Texas declared its secession from the United States in early 1861, and officially joined the Confederate States of America on March the 2nd of the same year. After the consequent Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.
One Texas industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle. Due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy . The state's economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century when oil discoveries initiated an economic boom in the state.
With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy
and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a
growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including
agriculture, petrochemicals energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, an biomedical sciences. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
Historically, Texas culture comes from a blend of Southern (Dixie), West (frontier), and South western ( Mexican/Anglo fusion ) influences, varying in degrees of such from one region to another. A popular food item, the breakfast burrito, draws from all three, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot cooked fillings. Adding to Texas's traditional culture, established in the 18th and 19th centuries, immigration has made Texas a melting pot of cultures from around the world.
Texas has made a strong mark on national and international pop culture. The state is strongly associated with the image of the cowboy shown in westerns
and in country western music . The state's numerous oil tycoons are also a popular pop culture topic as seen in the hit TV series Dallas.
Texas-sized is an expression that can be used in two ways:
to describe something that is about the size of the U.S. state of Texas, or to describe something (usually but not always originating from Texas) that is large compared to other objects of its type. Texas was the largest U.S. state, until Alaska became a state in 1959. The phrase, " everything is bigger in Texas ," has been used since at least 1950.
Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety. The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales . This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months, the Texians defeated all Mexican troops in the region. Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government. The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836.
During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt. The Mexican expedition was initially successful. General Jose de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad Massacre. Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo . News of the defeats sparked panic amongst Texas settlers.
The newly elected Texian delegates to the Convention of 1836 quickly signed a Declaration of Independence on March the 2nd, forming the Republic of Texas. After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded. The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army. After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto. Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war.
While Texas had won their independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic. The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean. Their opponents, led by Sam Houston , advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans. The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.
Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842. The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson Massacre . Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived. The republic's inability to defend itself added momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States.
The Battle of the Alamo (February the 23rd – March the 6th, 1836) was a pivotal event in the Texas Revolution. Following a 13-day siege, Mexican troops under President General Antonio López de Santa Anna launched an assault on the Alamo Mission near San Antonio de Béxar (modern-day San Antonio, Texas,
United States), killing all of the Texian defenders. Santa Anna's cruelty
during the battle inspired many Texians—both Texas settlers and
adventurers from the United States—to join the Texian Army. Buoyed by a
desire for revenge, the Texians defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of
San Jacinto, on April the 21st, 1836, ending the revolution.
Several months previously, Texians had driven all Mexican troops out of
Mexican Texas. About 100 Texians were then garrisoned at the Alamo. The
Texian force grew slightly with the arrival of reinforcements led by eventual
Alamo co-commanders James Bowie and William B. Travis. On February
the 23rd, approximately 1,500 Mexicans marched into San Antonio de
Béxar as the first step in a campaign to retake Texas. For the next 10 days
the two armies engaged in several skirmishes with minimal casualties.
Aware that his garrison could not withstand an attack by such a large
force, Travis wrote multiple letters pleading for more men and supplies, but
fewer than 100 reinforcements arrived there.
In the early morning hours of March the 6th, the Mexican Army advanced
on the Alamo. After repulsing two attacks, the Texians were unable to fend
off a third attack. As Mexican soldiers scaled the walls, most of the Texian
soldiers withdrew into interior buildings. Defenders unable to reach these
points were slain by the Mexican cavalry as they attempted to escape.
Between five and seven Texians may have surrendered; if so, they were quickly executed. Most eyewitness accounts reported between 182 and 257 Texians died, while most historians of the Alamo agree that around 600 Mexicans were killed or wounded. Several non combatants were sent to Gonzales to spread word of the Texian defeat. The news sparked both a strong rush to join the Texian army and a panic, known as " The Runaway Scrape ", in which the Texian army, mostly settlers, and the new Republic of Texas government fled from the advancing Mexican Army.
Within Mexico, the battle has often been overshadowed by events from the Mexican–American War of 1846–48. In 19th-century Texas, the Alamo complex gradually became known as a battle site rather than a former mission. The Texas Legislature purchased the land and buildings in the early part of the 20th century and designated the Alamo chapel as an official Texas State Shrine. The Alamo is now "the most popular tourist site in Texas". The Alamo has been the subject of numerous non-fiction works beginning in 1843. Most Americans, however, are more familiar with the myths spread by many of the movie and television adaptations, including the 1950s Disney miniseries Davy Crockett and John Wayne's 1960 film The Alamo.
By late afternoon Béxar was occupied by about 1,500 Mexican troops raised a blood-red flag signifying no quarter, Travis responded with a blast from the Alamo's largest cannon. Believing that Travis had acted hastily, Bowie sent Jameson to meet with Santa Anna.
Travis was angered that Bowie had acted unilaterally and sent his own representative, Captain Albert Martin . Both emissaries met with Colonel Juan Almonte and Jose Bartres. According to Almonte, the Texians asked for an honourable surrender but were informed that any surrender must be unconditional. On learning this, Bowie and Travis mutually agreed to fire the cannon again.
The first night of the siege was relatively quiet. Over the next few days, Mexican soldiers established artillery batteries, initially about 1,000 feet (300 m) from the south and east walls of the Alamo. A third battery was positioned southeast of the fort. Each night the batteries inched closer to the Alamo walls. During the first week of the siege more than 200 cannonballs landed in the Alamo plaza. At first the Texians matched Mexican artillery fire, often reusing the Mexican cannonballs. On February the 26th Travis ordered the artillery to conserve powder and shot.
Two notable events occurred on Wednesday, February the 24th. At some point that day, Bowie collapsed from illness, leaving Travis in sole command of the garrison. Late that afternoon, two Mexican scouts became the first fatalities of the siege. The following morning, 200–300 Mexican soldiers crossed the San Antonio River and took cover in abandoned shacks near the Alamo walls. Several Texians ventured out to burn the huts while Texians within the Alamo provided cover fire. After a two-hour skirmish the Mexican troops retreated to Béxar .
Six Mexican soldiers were killed and four others were wounded. No Texians were injured. A blue northern wind blew in on February the 25th, dropping the temperature to 39 °F (4 °C). Neither army was prepared for the cold temperatures. Texian attempts to gather firewood were thwarted by Mexican troops. On the evening of February the 26th Colonel Juan Bringas engaged several Texians who were burning more huts. According to historian J.R. Edmondson , one Texian was killed. Four days later, Texians shot and killed Private First Class Secundino Alvarez, a soldier from one of two battalions that Santa
Anna had stationed on two sides of the Alamo. By March the 1st, the number of Mexican casualties were nine dead and four wounded, while the Texian garrison had lost only one man.
"I am determined to sustain myself as long as possible & die like a soldier who never forgets what is due to his own honour & that of his country. VICTORY OR DEATH. "
excerpt from William B. Travis's letter To the People of Texas & All Americans in the World.
As news of the siege spread throughout Texas, potential reinforcements gathered in Gonzales. They hoped to rendezvous with Colonel James Fannin , who was expected to arrive from Goliad with his garrison. On February the 26th, after days of indecision, Fannin ordered 320 men, four cannons, and several supply wagons to march towards the Alamo, 90 miles (140 km) away. This group travelled less than 1.0 mile (1.6 km) before turning back. Fannin blamed the retreat on his officers; the officers and enlisted men accused Fannin of aborting the mission.
On March the 3rd, the Texians watched from the walls as approximately 1,000 Mexicans marched into Béxar. The Mexican army celebrated loudly throughout the afternoon, both in honor of their reinforcements and at the news that troops under General José de Urrea had soundly defeated Texian Colonel Frank W. Johnson at the Battle of San Patricio on February the 27th. Most of the Texians in the Alamo believed that Sesma had been leading the Mexican forces during the siege, and they mistakenly attributed the celebration to the arrival of Santa Anna. The reinforcements brought the number of Mexican soldiers in Béxar to almost 3,100.
On March the 4th, the day after his reinforcements arrived, Santa Anna proposed an assault on the Alamo. Many of his senior officers recommended that they wait for two 12-pounder cannons anticipated to arrive on March the 7th. That evening, a local woman, likely Bowie's cousin-in-law Juana Navarro Alsbury , approached Santa Anna to negotiate a surrender for the Alamo defenders. According to many historians, this visit probably increased Santa Anna's impatience; as historian Timothy Todish noted, "there would have been little glory in a bloodless victory". The following morning, Santa Anna announced to his staff that the assault would take place early on March the 6th. Santa Anna arranged for troops from Béxar to be excused from the front lines, so that they would not be forced to fight their own families.
Johnny Cash: Remember The Alamo
Legend holds that at some point on March the 5th, Travis gathered his
men and explained that an attack was imminent, and that they were
greatly outnumbered by the Mexican Army. He supposedly drew a line
in the ground and asked those willing to die for the Texian cause to
cross and stand alongside him; only one man (Moses Rose) was said
to have declined. Most scholars disregard this tale as there is no
primary source evidence to support it (the story only surfaced decades
after the battle in a third-hand account). However, Travis apparently
did at some point prior to the final assault, assemble the men for a
conference to inform them of the dire situation and giving them the
chance to either escape or stay and die for the cause. Susannah
Dickinson recalled Travis announcing that any men who wished to
escape should let it be known and step out of ranks. The last Texian
verified to have left the Alamo was James Allen, a courier who carried
personal messages from Travis and several of the other men on
March the 5th.
At 10 p.m. on March 5, the Mexican artillery ceased their bombardment. As Santa Anna had anticipated, the exhausted Texians soon fell into the first uninterrupted sleep many of them had since the siege began. Just after midnight , more than 2,000 Mexican soldiers began preparing for the final assault. Fewer than 1,800 were divided into four columns, commanded by Cos, Colonel Francisco Duque, Colonel José María Romero and Colonel Juan Morales. Veterans were positioned on the outside of the columns to better control the new recruits and conscripts in the middle. As a precaution, 500 Mexican cavalry were positioned around the Alamo to prevent escape of either Texian or Mexican soldiers. Santa Anna remained in camp
with the 400 reserves. Despite the bitter cold, the soldiers were ordered not to wear overcoats, which could impede their movements. Clouds concealed the moon, and thus the movements of the soldiers.
The three Texian sentinels stationed outside the walls were killed in their sleep, allowing Mexican soldiers to approach undetected within musket range of the walls. At this point, the silence was broken by shouts of "Viva Santa Anna!" and music from the buglers. The noise woke the Texians. Most of the non combatants gathered in the church sacristy for safety. Travis rushed to his post yelling, "Come on boys, the Mexicans are upon us and we'll give them hell!" and, as he passed a group of Tejanos, "No rendirse, muchachos!" (" Don't surrender, boys ").
In the initial moments of the assault Mexican troops were at a disadvantage. Their column formation allowed only the front rows of soldiers to fire safely. Unaware of the dangers, the untrained recruits in the ranks "blindly fired their guns", injuring or killing the troops in front of them. The tight concentration of troops also offered an excellent target for the Texian artillery. Lacking canister shot, the Texians filled their cannon with any metal they could find, including door hinges, nails, and chopped-up horseshoes, essentially turning the cannon into giant shotguns. According to the diary of José Enrique de la Peña, "a single cannon volley did away with half the company of chasseurs from Toluca". Duque fell from his horse after suffering a wound in his thigh and was almost trampled by his own men. General Manuel Castrillón quickly assumed command of Duque's column. Although some in the front of the Mexican ranks wavered, soldiers in the rear pushed them on. As the troops massed against the walls, Texians were forced to lean over the walls to shoot, leaving them exposed to Mexican fire. Travis became one of the first defenders to die, shot while firing his shotgun into the soldiers below him, though one source says that he drew his sword and stabbed a Mexican officer who had stormed the wall before succumbing to his injury. Few of the Mexican ladders reached the walls. The few soldiers who were able to climb the ladders were quickly killed or beaten back. As the Texians discharged their previously loaded rifles, however, they found it increasingly difficult to reload while attempting to keep Mexican soldiers from scaling the walls.
A flag similar to this was raised in Military Plaza in defiance of the Mexican troops. The two stars represented Mexican Texas and Coahuila
as separate states.
The Mexican soldiers closest to the north wall realized that the makeshift wall contained many gaps and toeholds. One of the first to scale the 12- foot (3.7 m) wall was General Juan Amador ; at his challenge, his men began swarming up the wall. Amador opened the postern in the north wall, allowing Mexican soldiers to pour into the complex. Others climbed through gun ports in the west wall, which had few defenders. As the Texian defenders abandoned the north wall and the northern end of the west wall, Texian gunners at the south end of the mission turned north and fired into the
advancing Mexican soldiers. This left the south end of the mission unprotected; within minutes Mexican soldiers had climbed the walls and killed the gunners, gaining control of the Alamo's 18- pounder
cannon. By this time Romero's men had taken the east wall of the compound and were pouring in through the cattle pen.
As previously planned, most of the Texians fell back to the barracks and the chapel. Holes had been carved in the walls to allow the Texians to fire. Unable to reach the barracks, Texians stationed
along the west wall headed west for the San Antonio River . When the cavalry charged, the Texians took cover and began firing from a ditch. Sesma was forced to send reinforcements, and the Texians were eventually killed. Sesma reported that this skirmish involved 50 Texians, but Edmondson believes that number was inflated.
The defenders in the cattle pen retreated into the horse corral. After discharging their weapons, the small band of Texians scrambled over the low wall, circled behind the church and raced on foot for the east prairie, which appeared empty. As the Mexican cavalry advanced on the group, Almaron Dickinson and his artillery crew turned a cannon around and fired into the cavalry, probably inflicting casualties. Nevertheless, all of the escaping Texians were killed.
The last Texian group to remain in the open were Crockett and his men, defending the low wall in front of the church. Unable to reload, they used their rifles as clubs and fought with knives. After a volley of fire and a wave of Mexican bayonets, the few remaining Texians in this group fell back towards the church. The Mexican army now controlled all of the outer walls and the interior of the Alamo compound except for the church and rooms along the east and west walls. Mexican soldiers turned their attention to a Texian flag waving from the roof of one building. Four Mexicans were killed before the flag of Mexico was raised in that location. For the next hour, the Mexican army worked to secure complete control of the Alamo. Many of the remaining defenders were ensconced in the fortified barracks rooms. In the confusion, the Texians had neglected to spike their cannon before retreating. Mexican soldiers turned the cannon towards the barracks. As each door was blown off Mexican soldiers would fire a volley of muskets into the dark room, then charge in for hand-to-hand combat.
Too sick to participate in the battle, Bowie likely died in bed. Eyewitnesses to the battle gave conflicting accounts of his death. Some witnesses maintained that they saw several Mexican soldiers enter Bowie's room, bayonet him, and carry him alive from the room. Others claimed that Bowie shot himself or was killed by soldiers while too weak to lift his head. According to historian Wallace Chariton, the "most popular, and probably the most accurate" version is that Bowie died on his cot, "back braced against the wall, and using his pistols and his famous knife." The first two Mexican soldiers that stormed into the room were shot and killed by Bowie's pistols, and drawing his knife, Bowie killed one or two other soldiers before the rest repeatedly stabbed him with their bayonets.
Last stand: Mexican soldiers advance on the fort at The Alamo in the 1960 film.
"Great God, Sue, the Mexicans are inside our walls!
If they spare you, save my child"
Last words of Texian defender Almaron Dickinson to his wife
Susanna as he prepared to defend the chapel.
The last of the Texians to die were the 11 men manning the two 12-
pounder cannon in the chapel. A shot from the 18-pounder cannon
destroyed the barricades at the front of the church, and Mexican
soldiers entered the building after firing an initial musket volley.
Dickinson's crew fired their cannon from the apse into the Mexican
soldiers at the door. With no time to reload, the Texians, including
Dickinson, Gregorio Esparza and James Bonham , grabbed rifles
and fired before being bayoneted to death. Texian Robert Evans,
the master of ordnance, had been tasked with keeping the
gunpowder from falling into Mexican hands. Wounded, he crawled
towards the powder magazine but was killed by a musket ball with
his torch only inches from the powder. Had he succeeded, the blast would have destroyed the church and killed the women and children hiding in the sacristy. As soldiers approached the sacristy, one of the young sons of defender Anthony Wolf stood to pull a blanket over his shoulders. In the dark, Mexican soldiers mistook him for an adult and killed him. Possibly the last Texian to die in battle was Jacob Walker, who attempted to hide behind Susannah Dickinson and was bayoneted in front of the women. Another Texian, Brigido Guerrero , also sought refuge in the sacristy. Guerrero, who had deserted from the Mexican Army in December 1835, was spared after convincing the soldiers he was a Texian prisoner.
By 6:30 a.m. the battle for the Alamo was over. Mexican soldiers inspected each corpse, bayoneting any body that moved. Even with all of the Texians dead, Mexican soldiers continued to shoot, some killing each other in the confusion. Mexican generals were unable to stop the bloodlust and appealed to Santa Anna for help. Although the general showed himself, the violence continued and the buglers were finally ordered to sound a retreat. For 15 minutes after that, soldiers continued to fire into dead bodies.
Mass Grave of the
According to many accounts of the battle, between five and seven Texians surrendered. Incensed that his orders had been ignored,
Santa Anna demanded the immediate execution of the survivors. Weeks after the battle, stories circulated that Crockett was among those who surrendered.
However, Ben, a former American slave who cooked for one of Santa
Anna's officers, maintained that Crockett's body was found surrounded by "no less than sixteen Mexican corpses". Historians disagree on which version of Crockett's death is accurate.
Mexican soldiers killed ranged from 60–200, with an additional 250-
300 wounded. Most Alamo historians place the number of Mexican casualties at 400–600. This would represent about one-third of the Mexican soldiers involved in the final assault, which Todish remarks is "a tremendous casualty rate by any standards". Most eye witnesses counted between 182--257 Texians killed.
Some historians believe that at least one Texian, Henry Warnell ,
successfully escaped from the battle. Warnell died several months
later of wounds incurred either during the final battle or during his escape as a courier.
The Texian bodies were stacked and burned. The only exception was the body of Gregorio Esparza. His brother Francisco, an officer in Santa Anna's army, received permission to give Gregorio a proper burial. The ashes were left where they fell until February 1837, when Juan Seguín returned to Béxar to examine the remains. A simple coffin inscribed with the names Travis, Crockett, and Bowie was filled with ashes from the funeral pyres. According to a March the 28th, 1837, article in the Telegraph and Texas Register, Seguín buried the coffin under a peach tree grove. The spot was not marked and cannot now be identified. Seguín later claimed that he had placed the coffin in front of the altar at the San Fernando Cathedral. In July 1936 a coffin was discovered buried in that location, but according to historian Wallace Chariton it is unlikely to actually contain the remains of the Alamo defenders. Fragments of uniforms were found in the coffin, and it is known that the Alamo defenders did not wear uniforms.
Impressed with Susanna Dickinson , Santa Anna offered to adopt her infant daughter Angelina and have the child educated in Mexico City. Dickinson refused the offer, which was not extended to Juana Navarro Alsbury for her son who was of similar age. Each woman was given a blanket and two silver pesos. Alsbury and the other Tejano women were allowed to return to their homes in Béxar; Dickinson, her daughter and Joe were sent to Gonzales, escorted by Ben. They were encouraged to relate the events of the battle, and to inform the remainder of the Texian forces that Santa Anna's army was unbeatable.
During the siege, newly elected delegates from across Texas met at the Convention of 1836. On March the 2nd, the delegates declared independence, forming the Republic of Texas . Four days later, the delegates at the convention received a dispatch Travis had written March the 3rd warning of his dire situation. Unaware that the Alamo had fallen, Robert Potter called for the convention to adjourn and march immediately to relieve the Alamo. Sam Houston convinced the delegates to remain in Washington-on-the-Brazos to develop a constitution. After being appointed sole commander of all Texian troops, Houston journeyed to Gonzales to take command of the 400 volunteers who were still waiting for Fannin to lead them to the Alamo. Within hours of Houston's arrival on March the 11th, Andres Barcenas and Anselmo Bergaras arrived with news that the Alamo had fallen and all Texians were slain. Hoping to halt a panic, Houston arrested the men as enemy spies. They were released hours later when Susannah Dickinson and Joe reached Gonzales and confirmed the report.
Despite their losses at the Alamo, the Mexican army in Texas
outnumbered the Texian army by almost six to one. Santa Anna
assumed that knowledge of the disparity in troop numbers and the
fate of the Texian soldiers at the Alamo would quell the resistance,
and that Texian soldiers would quickly leave the territory. News of
the Alamo's fall had the opposite effect, and men flocked to
Houston's army. The New York Post editorialized that "had Santa
Anna treated the vanquished with moderation and generosity, it
would have been difficult if not impossible to awaken that general
sympathy for the people of Texas, which now impels so many
adventurous and ardent spirits to throng to the aid of their brethren".
On the afternoon of April the 21st the Texian army attacked Santa
Anna's camp near Lynchburg Ferry. The Mexican army was taken
by surprise, and the Battle of San Jacinto was essentially over after
18 minutes. During the fighting, many of the Texian soldiers
"Remember the Alamo!"
as they slaughtered fleeing Mexican troops. Santa Anna was
captured the following day, and reportedly told Houston:
"That man may consider himself born to no common destiny who has conquered the Napoleon of the West. And now it remains for him to be generous to the vanquished." Houston replied, "You should have remembered that at the Alamo". Santa Anna was forced to order his troops out of Texas, ending Mexican control of the province and giving some legitimacy to the new republic.
The first English-language histories of the battle were written and
published by Texas Ranger and amateur historian John Henry Brown.
The next major treatment of the battle was Reuben Potter's The Fall of
the Alamo, published in The Magazine of American History in 1878.
Potter based his work on interviews with many of the Mexican survivors
of the battle. The first full-length, non-fiction book covering the battle,
John Myers' The Alamo , was published in 1948. In the decades since,
the battle has featured prominently in many non-fiction works.
According to Todish et al., "there can be little doubt that most Americans
have probably formed many of their opinions on what occurred at the
Alamo not from books, but from the various movies made about the
battle." The first film version of the battle appeared in 1911, when Gaston
Méliès directed The Immortal Alamo. The battle became more widely
known after it was featured in the 1950s Disney mini series Davy
Crockett, which was largely based on myth. Within several years, John
Wayne directed and starred in one of the best-known, but questionably
called The Alamo, was released. CNN described it as possibly "the most character-driven of all the movies made on the subject". It is also considered more faithful to the actual events than other movies.
A number of songwriters have been inspired by the Battle of the Alamo. Tennessee Ernie Ford's " The Ballad of Davy Crockett " spent 16 weeks on the country music charts, peaking at No. 4 in 1955. Marty Robbins recorded a version of the song "The Ballad of the Alamo" in 1960 which spent 13 weeks on the pop charts, peaking at No. 34. Jane Bowers' song "Remember the Alamo" has been recorded by artists including Johnny Cash and Donovan.